Wednesday, May 27, 2020

The Effectiveness of Standardized Testing in School - Free Essay Example

Within the last ninety-two years of standardized testing, many have argued that roughly ninety-three percent of students taking the SATs have found a positive effect on student achievement. However, their tests do not show the full maturity of the student nor do they show students time management, how the study, or their work ethic. These tests are known for the ability of a student to take a standardized aptitude test and to see if the student is prepared for college. It is not an effective way of determining where the student stands on the scales of being ready for college nor does it show an accurate representation of who the student really is. It fails to contribute any part of the students readiness for colleges such as time management skills, their study habits, work ethic, maturity, stress anxiety nor keep in part the meaningless time wasted if they do not get into their college of choice or the one the really wanted to attend. These issues show that these tests make the student worry more about whether or not they can truly live up to the means of a college student. Generally, colleges use these scores not as the sole criteria but as a way to see the successfulness in the first year of college by students that they accepted. As modest high school students know colleges highly recommend taking these college entrance exams. A high school transcript speaks loud and clear what a student is capable of, but colleges push to have their fulfillment met with high test scores as well as a polished transcript. This finishes the polished overall look of the star student every college would love to have. Time management is one of the better indicators of ones ability to succeed in college than the SAT. Time management is when someone has the ability to use and control how to use the hours of the day to be productive. The SAT does not reflect the students time management skills. It doesnt show how the student pace themselves. Each and every individual student has their own way of taking an exam. However does one truly know if the student flew through the sect ion material or did they actually use their time diligently and become one with the test. Each student takes the SAT at the same time, reading the same material, but each student is equipped with different test-taking strategies which help them score in the area they want and find agreeable. This way of testing only shows the capability of a student and them just trying to get into college and not truly understand any material that is before them. There is a large study that compares students who did not even submit their test scores to colleges; they chose to opt out of the test score option. In addition, this study confirms that the GPAs of these students are a better predictor for the entrance to college. Many students who have higher test scores but have lower grade point averages are far more likely to fall behind in college in comparison to those students who have low test scores but have a high grade point average. Many students are not test-taking machines. A major set back of the SAT is the major part of preparation. It is time-consuming and can be expensive if the student wants extensive tutoring and extra preparation such as an old test to practice with they have to find ways that may best fit them in the long run. Many schools do not offer a free practice for these types of test. Many students may not have the money to go and get a tutor or to prep for the test. They may go find something of limited resource and do the best they can with what they have. In addition to this, some students may even rely on the fact they have worked extremely hard throughout high school with extracurricular activities and doing these such as community service as well as being involved in other activities, volunteer services, community services. It would be a greater benefit for the students to not test the SAT because it gives more light upon who the student can be, what they can do, and how they can truly become more than just a piece of paper or a number in an envelope. While it is important for students to understand the fundamentals of the SATs, colleges believe that they shine a light on positive implications regarding the students academic success so a bad score on the SAT shouldnt imply it otherwise as well. The multitude of ways that a college could measure whether a student will be successful in college is beyond the probability of relief of many other students. There is too much importance set on the SAT. It continues to have importance not just on the admission of the student but also the purpose for scholarships and to determine the ranking of the schools Lemann gives a historical speech for the recent debates about the SAT. He describes in which the ways of the said test was to shape the development of intelligence in the early 1900s and in addition to the ideals of James Bryant Conant. The President of Harvard University, Conant sought to use educational testing to admit a more intellectual student body. Furthermore, the study habits of students vary. Many are visual learners while others can be told and they will understand. Many may say things aloud or that they make study the same material frontward, backward, upside down and every which way for them to understand. Others may lay out a schedule to study or even start with the most difficult subject matter first rather than to take the easy route. Too many students set a high goal for themselves they may not be able to achieve. Rather than pacing oneself to get a step by step process they jump feet first and hope for the best. In all actuality there the time to study and the time to actually take the test is far from. Within that time span, you have about a month to take the opportunity and actually get help when needed. The honesty of it all, believe it or not, students may not even utilize that time even if it was for two weeks. Due to the high importance and pressure placed on these test the students may worry more rather than studying properly as well as anxiety the students may have. The SAT, hearing these words echoing through the mind of a student is enough to make them anxious. It forces them to think about the many possible ways they have to sit down for three hours and hope they get a good enough score to get into their favorite college. On top of the stress and anxiety that is bought within the test, they study hours on end for preparing to even take test, in addition to all of that is the stress brought upon them from their own parents to make sure they get a high score. Test anxiety can cometo anyone in any academic level, it can cause self-esteem issues and can be intimidating to the student. Students with severe test anxiety typically display a lack of self-efficacy and motivation in the classroom (Bembenutty, 2008). Test anxiety may and can cause students to avid studying which leads to the result of low test scores. Test anxiety may cause a bigger issue on the SAT rather in the classroom when taking a regular test due to the cause of additional pressure. Futhermore, the feeling of being helpless, and the inadequency of answer that may be irrelvent to the test itself. In Mandler and Sarason (1952), the top 20% of scores comprised the high anxiety group and the bottom 20% of scores comprised the low anxiety group. Sarason et al. (1952) also dichotomized extreme anxiety scores, but the 15th percentile was the cutoff criteria. The high anxiety group performed significantly worse than the low anxiety group on the Kohs 8 block design test (Mandler and Sarason, 1952). So much rides on the students performance. Stress can help but can hurt peformace It focuses and concentrates the mind and screens out any and all extraneous thoughts. But, anxiety affects the decision making of a student, negatively affect the students score significantly. Guessing can become a bad habit to the student if they are not focusing nor actually reading the material of the test. Anixety builds and builds and they can no longer focus o the goal they are tryign to re ach they stress and focus more on they anxiety they are going through. Work ethic all goes hand in hand when it comes to taking test this serious. The more effeot and time that students take to prepare themselves corralte them the test scores they reiceve. In which can be discrimative toward other students who have different ways of studying. The overall way to take the SAT is to everything down to a T. Each student is different and is more lieky to do these they feel more comfotable with and what they know they can do to memorize or solve a math problem in a more easily less complex way. SAT scores of many high school students declined and now have raise the real question as to whether high schoolers are actually prepared for success in college, even the scores still remain to sink even to the lowest it has been since 2005. Each student has their way of how they do their work. Some can get it done within the first few hours of getting it and some may take more time to actually sit down and thoroughly understand and go through the material so they have a better concept of what they are doing. The SAT test students on vocabulary, mathematics, reading and muchmore. Maturity is one element of a student that colleges look at. Taking these exams show how they student is truly motivated, determined, well- rounded, and talented unique individual who can accomplish everything they come against. These test say they provide a barometer of what the extent of a student has been able to master the general high school curriculum. Is it true that students continue to have a greater access to educational resources and opportunities. That is a societal issue.In a response many college admissions departments have always sought to evaluate a students credentials and achievements against that students perceived opportunities. They maintain rigorous expectations of a student who has grown up with many privileges, and reasonably modified expectations of students who have overcome perceived disadvantages.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Ansoff Matrix - 1081 Words

Introduction In this assignment I will be describing how marketing techniques are used to market products in two organisations. The organisations I have selected are Tesco and Virgin Group. Growth strategies (Ansoff matrix) Igor Ansoff designed the Ansoff Matrix in 1957 and this was first published in the Harvard Business Review. The Ansoff Matrix identifies four areas of growth: 1. Market Penetration- Market penetration is where a business markets existing products to its existing customers. With this approach businesses are trying to sell more of the existing products to the same customers. 2. Market Development- Market development is when existing products are marketed in new markets such as marketing an existing product to a†¦show more content†¦This means that they are spending less and they will focus on the market that they are more successful. Relationship Marketing Tesco uses relationship marketing to target its customers. They use the Tesco Clubcard where they offer customers loyalty points on their purchases. When a customer scans for their Clubcard, the data that is collected is used to send out promotions to customers related on what they buy. They send out money off vouchers 4 times a year to help their existing customers. Alongside this, they provide a 12 month grantee on all of the electronic products that it sells. Tesco Clubcard holders benefit when shopping at Tesco as receive 1 point for every  £1 they spend, and double points on special offers. These points are stored and built up and 4 times a year the holder receives vouchers to the value of points they have saved (1p per point). Vouchers can be spent in store on shopping or used on Clubcard Deals where they are worth 4 times the value. They are also entitled to free access to the Clubcard clubs which include: wine, baby and toddler, healthy food, food and Christmas clubs. For Tesco the benefits they give to the customers ensure that they can micro-segment customers by lifestyle habits, including individual personality traits from analysis of the contents of each grocery cart. They can then target them with newsletters and other personalized information along with a variety of other marketingShow MoreRelatedAnsoff Matrix1576 Words   |  7 PagesAssignment title: ANSOFF MATRIX 08/04/2015 Tanju Colak AccountID: 70446465 1 Tanju Colak (70446465) – Betriebswirtschaftliche und volkswirtschaftliche Grundlagen 1. Introduction In 2003, the author Lynch suggested that the Ansoff Matrix describes the market and product choices available to a company. In this context products may be determined as items sold to customers and markets as customers. In some cases, the Ansoff Matrix is also defined as the market and product matrix. With the help ofRead MoreAnsoff Matrix3132 Words   |  13 PagesTable of content The executive summary†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 1. History of Ansoff Matrix.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 2. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. . 3 3. Model Use and the Applicability†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 3.1 Market Penetration†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦........ 5 3.2 Market development†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 7 3.3 Product Development†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. .. 7 3.4 Diversification†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦ 9 4. The Advantages†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 12 5. The Risks†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Read Moreansoff matrix1731 Words   |  7 Pagesis ansoff Mareix: Introduction The   Ansoff matrix  presents the product and market choices available to an  organization. Here in markets may be defined as customers, and products as items sold to customers (Lynch, 2003). The Ansoff matrix is also referred to as the market/product matrix in some texts. Some texts refer to the market options matrix, which involves examining the options available to the  organization  from a broader perspective. The market options matrix is different from Ansoff matrixRead MoreAnsoff Matrix , Pdf2059 Words   |  9 PagesStrengths | Weaknesses |   Ã‚  Fast decision making |   Ã‚  Negative image of the Middle East |   Ã‚  Oil money, booming economy |   Ã‚  Barren desert, the lack of natural resources |   Ã‚  Political neutrality and impartiality |   Ã‚  Only 20% of UAE nationals |   Ã‚  Unique beauty, hotels and attractions |   Ã‚  The lack of fundamental infrastructure: transportation, water |   Ã‚  Luxury experience includes relaxing beaches and invigorating sport and exploration opportunities |   Ã‚  Luxuries might appeal too small a segmentRead MoreNestle Ansoff Matrix1801 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction of Ansoff Matrix This well known marketing tool was first published in the Harvard Business Review (1957) in an article called Strategies for Diversification. It is used by marketers who have objectives for growth. Ansoffs matrix offers strategic choices to achieve the objectives. There are four main categories for selection. The market penetration strategy is the least risky since it leverages many of the firm’s existing resources and capabilities. In a growing market, simply maintainingRead MoreTesco Boston Matrix and Ansoff Matrix1156 Words   |  5 Pagesmacro environmental factors 1.2 Compare and contrast a minimum of two tools such as SWOT and POWER SWOT and apply to business solutions 1.3 Critically contrast Primary and Secondary research methods 2.1 Evaluate the use of tools such as Boston and Ansoff Matrix to business situations 2.2 Analyse the effectiveness of models such as Porter’s Generic Strategies 3.1 Evaluate consumer buying behaviour and the adoption process 3.2 Analyse the role of marketing mix to specific products 3.3 Evaluate the ProductRead MoreAnsoff Matrix on Apple1154 Words   |  5 Pagessoff MatMarket Penetration: -The signature product that made Apple, Apple, was the Macintosh. It first had a famous Television Advertisement in the US in 1984 introducing its signature product the Macintosh. This was led by Anya Major who was chased by agents of Thought Police, threw a sledgehammer into the screen of big brother David Graham. At the end, it says, â€Å"Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.† This screen of big brother David Graham supposedlyRead MoreAnsoff Matrix on Apple1170 Words   |  5 Pagessoff MatMarket Penetration: -The signature product that made Apple, Apple, was the Macintosh. It first had a famous Television Advertisement in the US in 1984 introducing its signature product the Macintosh. This was led by Anya Major who was chased by agents of Thought Police, threw a sledgehammer into the screen of big brother David Graham. At the end, it says, â€Å"Apple Computer will introduce Macintosh. And you’ll see why 1984 won’t be like 1984.† This screen of big brother David Graham supposedlyRead MoreSwot Analysis Of Ansoff s Matrix For Mercure Hotel Essay1492 Words   |  6 PagesThe Ansoff Product-Growth Matrix as a marketing tool is used to analyses alternative corporate growth strategies, concentrating on the hotel’s present and possible products and markets. It evaluates ways to grow by exploring the existing products as well as new products. In existing markets and new markets, there exist four likely product-market combinations (Cohen 2013). Ansoff s matrix for Mercure Hotel offers four different growth strategies: Market Penetration - the hotel pursue to attain growthRead MoreSamsung Ansoff Matrix and Generic Strategies4248 Words   |  17 Pagesto grow and compete effectively. Secondly, we will analyse Ryanair generic strategic comprehensively. I will discuss its corporate strategy with the help of Ansoff Matrix. It provides four different growth strategies: Market Penetration, Market Development, Product Development, Diversification. Corporate Level Strategy (Ansoffs Matrix) Existing New Products

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Effect Of Global Warming On The Ocean Essay

Chemistry A.S.91389 Chemical Process ‘Effect of Global Warming on the Ocean’ Jessica Smith Processes Although there is currently no way of accurately measuring such a value, scientists estimate that every day, 79 million tonnes of carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere (2). And this rate is expected to grow if we do not change our ways (3). But why is this a problem? Well, they also estimate that our oceans absorb between a quarter and a third of the excess anthropogenic (human generated) CO2 from the atmosphere (2,3,4), making it the Earth’s largest â€Å"carbon sink† (5). This Greenhouse Gas is mainly produced by deforestation (reducing the number of trees in a particular location able to convert CO2 into O2 through photosynthesis) and the burning of fossil fuels (3,6). Between present day and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of CO2 dissolved in our oceans has risen by more than 30% (1). This is because nature wants to exist in equilibrium (2), so our oceans are absorbing CO2 until the concentration of the molecule is the same or similar to that of the air around it. Since the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is increasing, the amount absorbed into the sea is increasing as well. Experts say that if the levels of CO2 continue to increase at a similar rate, the end of the century will sea the ocean 150% more acidic than pre-Industrial Revolution (2,7). These rates have not been seen in more than 20 million years (2,7). Once theShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Global Warming On The Ocean Temperature1052 Words   |  5 PagesIndicators: Ocean temperature Since 1970 the ocean temperature has been increasing at an unprecedented rate, this is indicating accelerated climate change as the water is heating along with the globe. Sea level The glaciers in Greenland and the arctic are melting due to the rising temperature causing the water level to rise. Ice surface area The ice surface across the globe is receding at an alarming rate year after year, as the water and globe warm the ice is not able to stay frozen. Increased droughtsRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effects On The Ocean2258 Words   |  10 Pages The ocean covers 70 percent of Earth’s surface, and is constantly being destroyed by humans every day. Coral reefs are dying, big marine life populations are becoming endangered and over fished, and plastic is polluting and killing sea life. Ninety-five percent of Earth’s ocean has yet to be explored and there is still so much life out there waiting to be discovered. Something needs to be done to protect and preserve the natural beauty and life of the ocean so it will live long enough for us toRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Effect On Earth s Surface, Oceans, And Atmosphere1165 Words   |  5 PagesGlobal warming is the gradual increase of temperature in Earth’s surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Some people may say that global warming is just a theory that has not been proven scientifically; however, I do believe that global warming is happening and that there is st rong evidence about this occurrence. Such evidence includes the increase of carbon dioxide, the rising of sea level, the increase of acid in the ocean, and clearly, the changes in global climate. In fact, mostly all sorts of humanRead MoreGlobal Warming Is A Real Event978 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen warned about global warning. There have been many efforts especially by the American people to go green in an effort to slow the human contribution to global warming. But just because we have been told that global warming is a real event and we should fear it, does that make this event a fact or phenomenon? As a critical thinking student I took time to look into the validity of global warming to decide if the validity of such an event. What is global warming? Global warming is the increase inRead MoreGreen House Effect On Earth1617 Words   |  7 PagesGreen House Effect: When sunlight reaches Earth s surface some is absorbed and warms the earth and most of the rest is radiated back to the atmosphere at a longer wavelength than the sun light. Some of these longer wavelengths are absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere before they are lost to space. The absorption of this long wave radiant energy warms the atmosphere. These greenhouse gases act like a mirror and reflect back to the Earth some of the heat energy which would otherwise be lostRead MoreClimate Change Of Global Warming924 Words   |  4 Pages Figure 0.1 shows the different effects of global warming. Global warming is the warming of our planet at an extreme rate. The Earth’s climate has warmed by 7.8OC since 1880. (Quick facts about science, 2015). What causes global warming? The cause of global warming is the carbon dioxide. This acts like a blanket. Protecting the earth, and heating the earth. Sun rays would normally bounce around the earth, but with the blanket, the sun rays heat the blanket which heats the earth. (Petersen ScienceRead MoreGlobal Warming And Its Impact On Our Earth1676 Words   |  7 Pagesthat we, as a global society, contribute to everyday. These concerns create major impacts that pertains to much of the globe and the world in which we inhabit today, compared to the world we lived in 50 years ago. Frequent statements that contribute to the overall thought of global warming include the following: how the community supplies detrimental factors to the Earth to cause global warming, and how can the community contribute to the repair of our vanishing Ear th. Global warming is a seriousRead MoreGlobal Warming Forewords Global warming is the result of a large concentration of CO2 and1400 Words   |  6 PagesGlobal Warming Forewords Global warming is the result of a large concentration of CO2 and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the atmosphere. Human activities such as burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and emissions are held responsible for this situation developing. The climate change is the result, and a factor of global warming. There are several factors impacting global warming, and these include ozone layer depletion, carbon cycle, pollution, human actions, and orbit of the earth. There is a debateRead MoreGlobal Warming is Changing the Artics Essay1265 Words   |  6 Pagesto nothing to fix the problem of global warming. More often than not, people are ignorant of the global warming situation because they know nothing about global warming and its effects on the planet. What is global warming? Global warming can be defined as â€Å"an increase in the earths atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted to occur due to an increase in the greenhouse effect resulting especially from pollution† (â €Å"Global Warming†). This greenhouse effect causes several problems. TheseRead MoreGlobal Climate Change and Human Activity Essay1152 Words   |  5 Pageschanges in the global climate. Natural causes like volcanic eruptions, the changes in the sun’s radiation, and the ocean current shifts noticed are contributing to the global climate change. In addition, the human activities such as the burning fossil fuels, and the cutting down of trees [forests] so as to create land to cultivate and rare cattle affect the climate change. The human activities that are done affect the global climate that the natural causes which has led to global warming in the atmosphere

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Effects of Binge Drinking on College Academics

Alcohol use among college students has always been a popular subject among teachers, parents, researchers, and even students. The actual act of drinking alcohol is not necessarily the problem, whether legal or not. The main problem is the act of binge drinking of college students, of age or not. Drinking modest amounts of alcohol may have some consequences, but binge drinking has more negative consequences than normal modest drinking. There are many examples as to the consequences that binge drinking can cause to college student’s lives, but one of the main consequences that students face as a result of frequent drinking is poor academic final grades. Binge drinking in college has been said to directly affect the GPA of college†¦show more content†¦The results of this study proved that a majority of the students ended up having a â€Å"C† average with 35.8%, and more students came out with an â€Å"F† average versus an â€Å"A† average. (Thombs et al., 2009) This information just brings to light how important it is to succeed in college, and how students should be trained at a young age how to prevent falling behind in college in order to succeed in school, and in life. One intervention study done by Pennsylvania State University (2010) with parents and high school students was to see the effects of student drinking in college if parents were involved in the decision making early on in high school. This study proved to show that students that took part in the study were less likely to find drinking in college interesting. These sorts of programs can lead to greater academic success in college stude nts. In another study done by Stephen Porter and John Pryor (2007), they related the number of drinks per week to time management and grades by separating the groups into gender and school type. Women typically seemed to spend less time drinking, especially at all women’s schools or research universities, than men at any kind of university. For the students who did seem to engage in heavier drinking, the smaller amountShow MoreRelatedA Study of College Drinking Essay examples1497 Words   |  6 PagesLiterature The literature on college binge drinking and student’s academic performance are for the most part; focused on an essential constituent or characteristic that has been revealed. During the past ten months, research has become an essential basis in regards to college binge drinking and the effects said behavior is having on those college students who choose to over-indulge. Given the situation over the literature pertaining to college binge drinking and poor academic grades, it is importantRead MoreBinge Drinking On College Campuses1459 Words   |  6 PagesMr. Paul October 28, 2014 Binge Drinking On College Campuses Over the past few years, there has been this big debate about whether the drinking age should be lowered to 18 or if it should stay at 21. Those in favor of lowering the drinking age to 18 argue that someone who is old enough to serve their country should be allowed to have a drink. Those who are in favor of keeping the minimum legal drinking age at 21 because of consequences regarding psychological developmentRead MoreTo Lower or Not to Lower the Legal Drinking Age to 18, That Is the Question881 Words   |  4 Pagesadults attend college with the hope of expanding their career opportunities, but are these young adults doing more than studying and homework? A new study suggests that binge drinking is on the rise among college students (Eisenberg n.p.). With an increase of alcohol consumption by underage drinkers, it only seems logical to lower the drinking age to prevent binge drinking, however there are far more consequences to be seen. Lowering the drinking age to 18 will not so lve the binge drinking problem amongRead MoreBinge Drinking On College Campuses1536 Words   |  7 PagesDr. Yacob Ali 30 November 2015 Binge Drinking on College Campuses Approximately four out of five college students drink alcohol ( Although alcohol does not have immediate negative effects, over consumption can lead to serious consequences. For example, 1,825 college students between the ages of 18 and 24 die each year from alcohol-related unintentional injuries ( alcohol-related injuries and accident are a result of binge drinking. The National Institute on AlcoholRead MoreAlcohol Issues on College Campuses1181 Words   |  5 PagesAlcohol Issues on College Campuses â€Å"Binge Drinking on College Campuses.† Center for Science in the Public for Science, Center for Science in the Public Interest. Web. 21Mar. 2012. The Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI) discusses that students enrolled in college are more likely to consume alcohol than their peers than do not attend college. They report that 1700 college students die yearly due to alcohol. The increasing number of college students drinking has resulted in higher incidencesRead MoreEssay on Informative Speech631 Words   |  3 Pagescategories: (1) Content (2) Organization (3) Sources (4) Achievement of specific purpose (5) Symbolization SPS: To inform my audience about binge drinking on college campuses. CIS: Binge drinking is a significant problem on college campuses, there are alarming statistics about the prevalence of binge drinking, and how binge drinking affects the lives of other students. Org Pattern: Topical Introduction I. Have you ever been to a party and drank too much? How much is too much? Read MoreThe s Perspective On Alcohol Abuse957 Words   |  4 Pageshis persuasiveness to be imprecise with no correlation between binge drinking and loneliness. For instance, his claims are supported based on personal experiences and personal observations such as students having difficulty making a new group of friends, being desperate to belong and creating an academic background. Unlike Weschler, Bruffee does not use scientific studies, real examples and realistic solutions to adequately connect binge drinkers and introverts; therefore, Bruffee is less successfulRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol On College Students Essay1312 Words   |  6 Pages(Fuertes Hoffman, 2016). Amongst all who consume alcohol, college students ages 18 to 24, have proven to consume more alcohol than any other age or group (Koyama Belli, 2011). Ruberman (2014) explained that college students between the ages of 18 to 24 are exper iencing a time in life when mental illness levels are high. College students are also enduring higher levels of stress than normal that stem from social pressures and new academic responsibilities (Bodenlos, Noonan, Wells, 2013). BeingRead MoreThe Effects Of Alcohol Abuse And Binge Drinking1523 Words   |  7 Pages College students will always encounter some type of â€Å"problem† during their college experience. A problem can be something simple such as a lack of adequate parking or more complex such as sexual harassment. â€Å"A new report from Student Monitor asked college students to identify the biggest problems on campus, and their top three answers were cost of education, stress, and alcohol abuse,† (Jacobs, 2014, p.1). College students will be affected by a number of problems during their college career. AsRead MoreOne More Drink For The Good Times925 Words   |  4 Pageslittle drinking this weekend!!† That statement is one heard among the college community nationwide nowadays. Binge drinking with others to gain new friendships, meet people, among other reasons, on college campuses is the thought process countless students believe today. â€Å"The Harvard School of Public Health found in 1993 that binge drinking is widespread on American campuses, particularly amo ng members of fraternities and sororities (Bruffee, 1999).† If college students think binge drinking and partying

Film Analysis The Searchers - 1624 Words

Film Analysis-The Searchers Dean Childs ENG 225 Allison Sansbury November 10, 2014 The Searchers Throughout this class, various discussions and blogs have been used to analyze the different elements of films such as theme, cinematic techniques and genre. It is time to bring all of these separate elements together in the analysis of one specific film, according to class text, â€Å"analyzing levels of meaning below the surface story can greatly enhance enjoyment as well as understanding of a film† (Goodykoontz Jacobs, 2014. p. 10.03). There are several different approaches to film analysis including formalist, auteurist, and generic or any combination thereof. Utilizing a genre theory lens, the 1956 film The Searchers will be analyzed addressing contextual information, story/plot, aesthetic choices, social/personal impact and how these areas come together to develop the film. 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The Wild West: An Analysis of Post-Civil War Tension in John Ford’s â€Å"My Darling Clementine† Following the end of the United States’ Civil War, new territories had becomes states, notably what is now known as the West. The West, iconized by its Cowboys, gunfights, andRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1516 Words   |  7 Pagesuse networking sites as frequently. He also recognizes that social investigation is another method for the user to utilize social platforms. Giving the user the access to search and locate people on different sites without them knowing gives the searcher surveillance notoriety. This has the potential to transcend into negative aspects between interpersonal relationships in the real world. However, being affiliated with these sites can lead to new friendships and opportunities, resulting in the userRead MoreEnglish Literature At The University Of California1992 Words   |  8 PagesProQuest 3. Project MUSE 4. Cambridge Companions Online ( 5. Oxford Scholarship Online, University Press Scholarship Online (UPSO) ( 6. Searcher 7. University of Edinburgh s Library Catalogue a. Three relevant monographs. Novak, Maximillian E. Daniel Defoe: Master of Fictions: His Life and Ideas. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2001. Oxford Scholarship Online. Web. 1 Oct. 2014. - Found from OxfordRead More Information Technology Essay1647 Words   |  7 Pagesvisualizations that cover as much information from as many perspectives as possible. Classroom research today takes the text based references familiar to most adults and augments them with CD-ROMs containing music, speeches, diagrams, animations, and film clips†¦ Specific tools that support gathering skills include word processors, CD-Rom references, Internet search engines( Lycos,, AltaVista, Yahoo are popular choices). Evaluating—separating the info-gems from info-glut is both an individual and

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The managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection, appraisal and development of the personnel’s to fill the roles assigned to the employers/workforce. Definition Staffing: The selection and training of individuals for specific job functions, and charging them with the associated responsibilities. Staffing is the process by which an organisation creates a pool of applicants and makes a choice from that pool to provide the right person at the right place at the right time to increase the organisational effectiveness. Also,Staffing is the process of acquiring, deploying, and retaining a workforce of sufficient quantity and quality to create positive impacts on the organizations effectiveness According to Theo Haimann, â€Å"Staffing pertains to recruitment, selection, development and compensation of subordinates. † Objectives of Staffing: Staffing aims to match employee skills with necessary tasks in the most cost-effective ways. Effective staffing involves understanding company needs, such as when its most important to save money and when its most important to do the best job possible. It also involves understanding the skills and needs of staff members, as well as their passions and idiosyncrasies in order to find the best possible fit. †¢SCHEDULING Staffing involves scheduling employees to cover shifts in order to perform the tasks necessary to effectively run a company. Some businesses, such as retail stores, must cover a set number of hours, or the times when customers expect their doors to be open. Other companies, such as manufacturers, earn income by completing a specified volume of work regardless of how long it takes. If your business must staff a specific number of hours, it makes sense to schedule your best employees during the busiest times and the lowest achievers during the slowest times. If your company profits by completing a set amount of work, staffing is a matter of scheduling the most efficient workers to complete a project as quickly and thoroughly as possible. †¢FLEXBILITY Every business encounters unforeseen circumstances. Staffing should take into account the fact that sometimes a rigid schedule will fail to adequately address the surprises and opportunities that are an inevitable part of company operations. Successful staffing should have built-in flexibility to allow for extra work when necessary and to cut back on shifts when demand unexpectedly drops. †¢BUILDING SKILLS Staffing also should build the skills of employees. When workers perform the same tasks repeatedly, their morale declines because they do not feel challenged. Scheduling employees for responsibilities outside of their comfort zone enables them to grow, learn and maintain interest in their jobs. It also benefits management by enabling a company to be able to draw on more employees qualified to perform a broader range of tasks. CUTTING COSTS Successful staffing produces the best possible results at the lowest possible cost. This does not mean a manager should keep wages as low as possible or schedule workers for fewer hours because these cost-cutting measures can be quite expensive when shoddy work results. Rather, successful staffing should be thorough without being wasteful and frugal without cutting corners. The process of staffing: 1. Manpower requirements- The very first step in staffing is to plan the manpower inventory required by a concern in order to match them with the job requirements and demands. Therefore, it involves forecasting and determining the future manpower needs of the concern. 2. Recruitment- Once the requirements are notified, the concern invites and solicits applications according to the invitations made to the desirable candidates. 3. Selection- This is the screening step of staffing in which the solicited applications are screened out and suitable candidates are appointed as per the requirements. 4. Orientation and Placement- Once screening takes place, the appointed candidates are made familiar to the work units and work environment through the orientation programmed. Placement takes place by putting right man on the right job. 5. Training and Development- Training is a part of incentives given to the workers in order to develop and grow them within the concern. Training is generally given according to the nature of activities and scope of expansion in it. Along with it, the workers are developed by providing them extra benefits of indepth knowledge of their functional areas. Development also includes giving them key and important jobsas a test or examination in order to analyse their performances. 6. Remuneration- It is a kind of compensation provided monetarily to the employees for their work performances. This is given according to the nature of job- skilled or unskilled, physical or mental, etc. Remuneration forms an important monetary incentive for the employees. 7. Performance Evaluation- In order to keep a track or record of the behaviour, attitudes as well as opinions of the workers towards their jobs. For this regular assessment is done to evaluate and supervise different work units in a concern. It is basically concerning to know the development cycle and growth patterns of the employeesin a concern. . Promotion and transfer- Promotion is said to be a non- monetary incentive in which the worker is shifted from a higher job demanding bigger responsibilities as well as shifting the workers and transferring them to different work units and branches of the same organization. Recruitment is of 2 types: 1. Internal Recruitment 2. External Recruitment Internal Recruitment: Inte rnal Recruitment is a recruitment which takes place within the concern or organization. Internal sources of recruitment are readily available to an organization. Internal sources are primarily three Transfers, promotions and Re-employment of ex-employees. Re-employment of ex-employees is one of the internal sources of recruitment in which employees can be invited and appointed to fill vacancies in the concern. There are situations when ex-employees provide unsolicited applications also. Internal recruitment may lead to increase in employee’s productivity as their motivation level increases. It also saves time, money and efforts. But a drawback of internal recruitment is that it refrains the organization from new blood. Also, not all the manpower requirements can be met through internal recruitment. Hiring from outside has to be done. Internal sources are primarily 3 a. Transfers b. Promotions (through Internal Job Postings) and c. Re-employment of ex-employees Re-employment of ex-employees is one of the internal sources of recruitment in which employees can be invited and appointed to fill vacancies in the concern. There are situations when ex-employees provide unsolicited applications also. External Recruitment: External Recruitment External sources of recruitment have to be solicited from outside the organization. External sources are external to a concern. But it involves lot of time and money. The external sources of recruitment include Employment at factory gate, advertisements, employment exchanges, employment agencies, educational institutes, labour contractors, recommendations etc. oEmployment at Factory Level This a source of external recruitment in which the applications for vacancies are presented on bulletin boards outside the Factory or at the Gate. This kind of recruitment is applicable generally where factory workers are to be appointed. There are people who keep on soliciting jobs from one place to another. These applicants are called as unsolicited applicants. These types of workers apply on their own for their job. For this kind of recruitment workers have a tendency to shift from one factory to another and therefore they are called as â€Å"badli† workers. oAdvertisement It is an external source which has got an important place in recruitment procedure. The biggest advantage of advertisement is that it covers a wide area of market and scattered applicants can get information from advertisements. Medium used is Newspapers and Television. oEmployment Exchanges There are certain Employment exchanges which are run by government. Most of the government undertakings and concerns employ people through such exchanges. Now-a-days recruitment in government agencies has become compulsory through employment exchange. oEmployment Agencies There are certain professional organizations which look towards recruitment and employment of people, i. e. these private agencies run by private individuals supply required manpower to needy concerns. Educational Institutions There are certain professional Institutions which serves as an external source for recruiting fresh graduates from these institutes. This kind of recruitment done through such educational institutions, is called as Campus Recruitment. They have special recruitment cells which helps in providing jobs to fresh candidates. oRecommendations There are certain people who have experience in a particular area. They enjoy goodwill and a stand in the company. There are certain vacancies which are filled by recommendations of such people. The biggest drawback of this source is that the company has to rely totally on such people which can later on prove to be inefficient. oLabour Contractors These are the specialist people who supply manpower to the Factory or Manufacturing plants. Through these contractors, workers are appointed on contract basis, i. e. for a particular time period. Under conditions when these contractors leave the organization, such people who are appointed have to also leave the conce Developing Staffing Strategies: Most organizations understand the benefits that a longer term approach to staff planning can bring. Many actually attempt to develop staffing strategies (or strategic workforce plans, as they are also known). Unfortunately, these organizations often find that the â€Å"traditional† approaches to workforce planning that they try to use are ineffective, and expected benefits are not realized. The answer to this problem lies not in trying to implement the traditional approach more effectively, but in implementing a completely different kind of process for strategic staffing. This paper describes (and provides examples of) some of those â€Å"less traditional,† but more effective approaches. The â€Å"Strategic Staffing† Process First, clarify our terms. I define â€Å"strategic staffing† as the process of identifying and addressing the staffing implications of business plans and strategies, or better still, as the process of identify-ing and addressing the staffing implications of change. The impact on staffing should be defined (or at least discussed) whenever changes to business plans are being considered (whether near-term or longer-term). Others call the process â€Å"strategic workforce planning,† but to me, â€Å"strategic staffing† emphasizes the longer term, business orientation of the process. By any name, this effort typically includes: †¢Defining the number (staffing levels) and types (capabilities) of employees who will be needed at a particular point in the future to implement plans effectively (often including how that staff should be organized and deployed); †¢ Identifying the staffing resources that are currently available; †¢Projecting the â€Å"supply† of talent that will be available at that point in the future for which requirements have been defined (e. g. , factoring in the effects of turnover, retirements, planned movement, etc. ; †¢ Identifying differences between anticipated demand and forecasted supply; †¢Developing and implementing staffing plans/actions needed to close talent gaps and eliminate surpluses. These basic elements are, of course, quite typical of any strategic staffing or workforce planning process, and might be described in any text or suggested by any consultant. Successful implementation of a strategic staff ing process lies not in how these basic steps are defined. The â€Å"devil is in the details† — or perhaps more appropriately in this case — the devil is in the implementation. It is not the steps themselves that are important, it is how they are developed and implemented that counts. Traditional Approaches Just Don’t Work Most organizations that attempt to implement a strategic staffing process follow a fairly traditional approach. Usually, these organizations include staff planning as a component of their annual business planning process. Often, these organizations request that managers define future staffing needs for each year of the planning period (usually in terms of headcount, not required capabilities) using a common template or â€Å"form. The templates are at a common level of detail and are based on common planning parameters (e. g. , all units define requirements at a job-specific level for each of the coming three years). Once completed, these templates are often combined or compiled at various levels to create overall pictures of needs (e. g. , unit plans are â€Å"rolled up† to a divisional level, divisional plans are compiled to create a â€Å"firm-wide† view). Organizations then attempt to create meaningful staffing plans to address these needs. Some organizations supplement these staffing plans with a series of reports and listings (e. g. a list of openings and how they were filled, a summary of turnover rates over time for various types of employees). Unfortunately, rarely do these efforts result in specific staffing and development plans that are actually implemented. Managers tend to see limited value in the process and complain loudly about the work involved. Most managers are being measured and rewarded for achieving short-term objectives that may be inconsistent with the longer-term view that strategic staffing entails. Forecasts of needs are often â€Å"hockey stick† projections that are not realistic or grounded in business plans. Some managers in more volatile areas, where business is changing rapidly, question the validity and value of processes that ask them to provide estimates of staffing needs for points in time that are well beyond their ability (or need) to plan. Staff planning is often incomplete — required staffing levels may be forecast, but required capabilities are not. The staffing plans that result from traditional processes such as these often provide little valuable information and are rarely used to drive staffing decisions. Estimates of need are imprecise and inaccurate. In many cases, the output from the process is too high-level and generic to drive recruiting plans, especially once they have been rolled up to create that firm-wide view. Since required capabilities are not usually defined specifically, it is difficult (if not impossible) to create action-oriented development plans for individuals that address anticipated capability shortages. Some organizations do not even create staffing plans, opting instead to focus their workforce planning efforts almost solely on reporting and compiling staffing information from the past (e. . , detailed turnover studies and descriptions of recent staffing actions), rather than planning to meet future needs. In the end, there has been much work completed, but few results seen. The strategic staffing process then becomes solely staff driven, or worse yet, disappears completely. More Effective Approaches to Strategic Staffing Often, implementing different, more pragmatic approaches to strategic staffing can yiel d the high-quality results that organizations need and expect. Start by defining an entirely different objective for the process itself. The objective is to build a context for decision making, not to predict the future. Don’t try to predict future staffing needs with certainty or define actions to be taken now to eliminate problems that may or may not occur in the future. At best, that is difficult to do well (and accurately) and may be viewed by managers as something that is â€Å"nice to have† but not absolutely necessary. Instead, consider a staffing strategy as a longer-term context within which more effective near term staffing decisions can be made. Not only is this a more realistic objective for the process, but its shorter-term focus might just capture the attention of those line managers who are being measured by, and rewarded for, achieving near-t e r m objectives. Because it helps define appropriate short-term actions, it is more likely that the same line manager making the staffing decision will still be in place to reap the benefits of that decision later on. Here is a simple example of how this objective works in practice. Suppose an organization has documented that it will need 25 additional project managers by the end of its fiscal year. How would a need like this be met? Positions could be filled through hiring, redeployment, promotion, work reassignment, use of contract/contingency staff, or many other sources. Which option is most effective? To select the right option, that organization must have a sense of its future needs. If those project managers are needed in the future (i. e. , beyond this fiscal year), a more permanent solution is most effective (e. g. , hiring or promotion). If, on the other hand, the need is a â€Å"blip† in the curve or the result of some project scheduling irregularities, a more temporary solution is better. For example, the company might hire contractors or delay new projects until the first quarter of the next year, so that existing project managers can be redeployed to those jobs, and an unneeded surplus of talent is not created in the future. In any of these instances, the â€Å"best† near-term solution can only be determined after the longer-term context has been defined. When searching for ways to improve (or initiate) the strategic staffing process, onsider the following options to traditional approaches.? Address staffing from a proactive, planning perspective, not just an mplementation concern. It is no longer appropriate to consider staffing olely from an implementation perspective. Even though it may have been cceptable practice in the past, it is no longer realistic for business to 4 ssume that the staff needed to implement its plans is readily available nd quickly recruited, developed and deployed. In fact, staffing constraints e. g. , an inability to recruit a sufficient number of individuals with critical kills) may impact the company’s ability to implement its plans. These onstraints should be identified and addressed as part of the planning rocess, not left as surprises to be uncovered when implementation egins. From a more positive perspective, a company may choose to ove in a different direction (or try to capitalize on a market opportunity) pecifically because of the staffing levels and capabilities it has at its isposal. ere is an example. In order to take advantage of population growth and hift, an HMO planned to expand into a new geographic region of the state served. The marketing and medical economics functions determined that our new medical centers needed to be built, if the member needs and otential of this new market were to be met effectively and efficiently. The ecision was made to construct the new enters simultaneously in order to nter this market quickly. Unfortunately, the HMO lacked a sufficient umber of physicians and medical technicians to staff four new centers all at once—at least without having a catastrophic impact on its existing acilities. As a result, newly constructed medical centers went unused some for many months), until sufficient staff could be secure d. Obviously, quite costly to maintain the unused facilities. A review of available sffing before the construction decision was made would have shown that a sequential (not simultaneous) opening of centers was more cost effective. Focus on issues, not organizations. Many organizations feel that, because staffing strategies are beneficial in some areas, they should be completed for the organization as a whole — that plans should be created for every unit, regardless of its situation. This type of process usually proves to be both ineffective and inefficient, because not every unit merits the detailed analysis that is typically needed to create and implement an effective staffing strategy. Instead of creating models or analyses for every unit, focus only on those areas where strategies are really needed. Create a series of staffing strategies that each address particular issues. For example, build a staffing strategy that focuses solely on positions that are critical to business success. Create a strategy for a series of positions that are hard to fill or for which external competition for talent is great. Focus a strategy on a unit that will experience significant change. Will the organization need to tap new, nontraditional sources for key talent? If so, create a strategy that is concentrated on those jobs. This approach will allow you to focus your planning resources where they will have the most advantageous effect. Here is an example of this focus. Two insurance companies were 5 merging. Obviously, mergers can create a host of staffing issues, some more critical than others. Instead of creating a generic strategy that applied to many units, the company chose to focus initially on claims. The claims functions of the two companies were managed and staffed quite differently. One company was organized by function (e. g. , disbursement), the other by impairment category (e. g. , long-term disability). In addition, one company had a 40-hour work week, and the second had a 37. 5-hour week. A longer-term, succinct, focused staffing plan was developed to integrate the two claims work forces and define the implications of changes in work week length. Other (separate) strategies were developed to address other implications of the merger. In some cases, staffing strategies that span organizational boundaries are still needed. Cross-unit staffing strategies should be developed whenever an organization intends to manage key talent across organization lines (e. g. , managing IT or entry-level engineering talent from a â€Å"corporate† perspective). An â€Å"issue orientation† can still be maintained in these cases. When creating such strategies, include in the analysis only those positions that are to be managed from a broader perspective. Here are two examples: o An HMO was implementing a new, nationwide data collection and analysis system that would support all of its regions (some of which had their own such systems). Still, it had to maintain its legacy systems while implementing the new system. This raised numerous staffing issues. New talent (with new IT skills) had to be sourced to support the development of the new system, moreover critical talent had to be retained to keep old systems functioning in the meantime. Yet the organization did not want to simply hire/contract the new talent, for then the skills of its existing talent would become obsolete. It only made sense to address these critical issues from a nationwide, cross-region perspective. The HMO developed a staffing strategy that focused on the critical IT skills needed to support the transition—but only on the positions that required these specific skills. Other plans (some strategic, some tactical) were developed for other positions. o To increase its staffing flexibility, the department of transportation of a tate government was considering combining several separate classes of workers (each of which was focused on a particular set of skills) into a single category of â€Å"transportation worker† that included individuals with multiple skills. A staffing strategy was developed to define the effects that this change would have on classification, scheduling/deployment, and training. The plan that was developed included transportation workers in all districts (since bargaining unit considerations meant that the change could 6 only be implemented on a statewide basis), but focused mainly on the positions that were affected. Finally, don’t attempt to solve a second issue or problem until you have created (or at least are well on your way to creating) staffing strategies that fully address the first! ?Tailor the process for each issue. Traditionally, each unit is asked to provide the same information regarding staffing, using a common template, at the same time each year, for the same planning period/time frame. While this approach may bring consistency to the approach, it also forces every unit to adopt a process and set of planning parameters that may not be appropriate. Rather than creating a one-size-fits-all process that applies everywhere, vary planning parameters (e. g. , the population to be included, the planning horizon, and the structure of the model itself), so that they are appropriate for each issue being addressed. Here is an example of tailoring. An engineering/construction firm created a â€Å"long-term† staffing plan for its IT unit that covered but a single year. Given the rapid pace of change of technology (and that so little was known about the future of that technology), it was difficult to define needs (whether in terms of capabilities or staffing levels) past that one-year point. Consequently, it made no sense to develop staffing plans for IT beyond that one-year planning horizon (even though the organization had a five-year business plan). That same organization also found it necessary to increase the depth and breadth of its management pool. Given the rate of change for the business as a whole (and the time needed to implement any significant changes in management talent), a three-tofive- year staffing and development plan was developed. A â€Å"common† process would probably force the IT function and management teams to use the same time frame, and this would most probably result in an ineffective plan. Would it be appropriate to ask IT to create staffing plans for years two and three, even though managers knew that this information would not be useful and would not be applied? Alternatively, would it have been better to ask each unit to plan management needs for just the one-year time frame, even though it would take several years to address the depth and breadth issues that were identified? Would it have been possible to compromise and have each group do a two-year plan (which is probably ineffective for both)? In this case (and many others like it), it only makes sense to vary the planning horizon. Obviously, this tailoring of parameters is only viable when separate staffing plans are defined by issue. The typical one-size-fits-all approach doesn’t allow such variation. 7 ?Focus on particular positions, not all positions. Some organizations attempt to develop staffing strategies that include all jobs. Not every job even needs to be addressed from a strategic perspective. For example, it is rarely necessary to develop a long-term staffing strategy for a job that can be filled relatively quickly from known internal sources or relatively abundant external pools. In addition, the development of effective staffing strategies requires much work and significant resources, so it is not usually realistic to include each and every position in the analysis. Including all jobs (even those for which a strategic perspective is not required) simply bogs down the process, rendering it even more inefficient. Instead, the process should focus on only two types of positions or situations. Consider building staffing strategies only for positions where: o The organization needs to be proactive. A longer-term perspective is usually required when an organization is trying to be proactive in meeting staffing needs (e. . , staffing and training a customer service unit, so that it is fully functional before a new product is launched). Which jobs will be staffed just before launch? Which will be filled a month or two before launch in order to build continuity and teamwork? Which senior management/leadership positions should be filled a year in advance to set direct ion and strategy? o The organization needs time to respond. Strategic perspective is needed when an organization determines that their staffing needs are best met in ways that require some advance preparation (e. g. cases where new sources of talent must be identified; as normal channels become less productive; or instances where talent needs will be met through longer-term development, not short-term hiring). If a future need is to be filled from within, what development needs must be addressed before such a move can be made? What plans for development should be created and implemented so that such moves will be realistic and successful? If you are to develop new relationships with alternative sources of talent (e. g. , new schools or search firms), it will take time to identify and develop possible artnerships with such sources. Long-term staffing strategies may not need to be created for any other type of position—and certainly need not be developed for all positions, rega rdless of need. Here are two examples, one proactive and one responsive: o Being proactive: After conducting a scan, an oil company discovered that it was particularly vulnerable, from a recruiting 8 and staffing perspective, in the area of geo-science. Competition for graduate geologists and geophysicists was intensifying, and the company was expecting that it would be unable to attract the number of recruits it thought it needed. Given the criticality of this need, the company wanted to be proactive. It decided to develop contacts and relationships with graduate students well before they entered the job market (e. g. , through presentations and internships), so that ties might be developed which would increase the possibility that they would work for the company upon graduation. The company created a model and staffing strategy that focused solely on these â€Å"hard to fill† categories. o Needing time to respond: In an insurance company, the traditional â€Å"career path† to branch manager passed through the underwriting function. Most branch managers began as trainees, became underwriters, were then designated â€Å"managers in training,† and were subsequently named branch managers, usually in smaller offices. This process might take eight to ten years. Openings for branch managers in larger offices usually were filled by promoting managers from smaller offices. Rapid business expansion meant that a large number of new branch offices would be opened. The traditional career path could simply not provide a sufficient number of qualified candidates. Because of the length of time required to move along that path, the company was forced to find alternate ources for branch manager candidates. The organization developed a staffing strategy that helped it to define the appropriate mix of targeted recruiting and accelerated development that was needed to meet its growing needs for management talent. Keep plans separate, not consolidated. In many cases, organizations prepare staffing plans at a unit level that are then â€Å"rolled up† into some kind of consolidated plan (or to display the results â€Å"on one sheet of paper†). The common templates that are often used to gather staffing data are designed to facilitate just this type of consolidation. This process of consolidation actually squeezes out the very detail that is most useful and some-times masks significant differences. If one unit has 20 software engineers too many and another unit has 20 too few, consolidation of staffing plans would show that there is no problem (i. e. , the surplus of 20 and the gap of 20 would cancel out, implying that no issues needed to be addressed). In fact (assuming 9 the units are not co-located), there may be 40 issues to address (i. e. , reducing 20 gaps and alleviating 20 surpluses). It is also difficult (and sometimes actually impossible) to develop specific, actionable staffing plans to address summarized needs. The plans might vary greatly depending on circumstances and situations. For example, a consolidated staffing plan might describe an overall need for 15 â€Å"technical specialists. † The staffing actions required to fill 15 openings in one unit/location would probably be completely different from those needed to fill a single opening in each of 15 different units/locations. The actions needed to fill 15 positions of the same type of specialist would be quite different from those needed to fill 15 different types. Similarly, it would be difficult (and perhaps even impossible) to define recruiting plans based on a strategy that consolidates various engineering specialties into a single category. It is unlikely that the differences needed to create realistic, focused staffing plans could be discerned or inferred from summarized or compiled data. When creating staffing strategies, keep the plans separate and distinct. This is especially true if you have developed plans to address separate issues, using different planning parameters. Create plans that are at the same level as your probable solution. Don’t roll up data as a matter of course. Create a corporate view only if the staffing issues that can be identified and addressed are at a corporate level. If, in certain cases, an integrated plan is required (e. g. , to manage IT across, and not within, organizational units), create a â€Å"stand-alone† model that spans those units but includes only those jobs. When it comes time to summarize (and develop that one sheet overview), create a page that high-lights the most critical staffing issues you have defined (see above) and summarizes the strategies you plan to implement to address those issues. If more detail is required, make specific plans available as an attachment. ?Define issues on an ongoing basis, don’t create an â€Å"event. † Strategic staffing should be thought of as defining and addressing the staffing implications of change. Thus, staffing implications need to be defined, whenever change is being discussed or anticipated. If your organization discusses and considers changes to its business plans and strategies just once each year, then an annual staffing process may be appropriate. If your organization discusses, considers, and implements changes throughout the year, however, an annual process is probably insufficient. A discussion of the staffing implications of changes in business plans should be conducted each and every time change is 10 discussed or anticipated — not at some set time each planning period. Assuming change is constant, this implies that strategic staffing is an ongoing process, implemented and updated throughout the year—not a once-a-year event. As an example, an engineering /construction company used to have an annual staff planning process, but now discusses staffing implications of change at every management committee meeting (i. e. , on a biweekly basis). Further, it developed a performance expectation for managers that any proposal for resources (e. g. , a new project or a change in technology used) had to include a analysis of staffing issues and a high-level staffing plan. ?Focus on planning and acting, not reporting. Many organizations spend too much time creating reports, tables and listings that describe in detail past turnover, current staffing levels, and other staffing related data. Others document staffing movement (e. g. , identifying openings and detailing how each was filled). In some cases, these reports represent the bulk of the HR planning effort. What good is this data if it does not significantly affect decision making? An old adage describes a significant difference between â€Å"data† and â€Å"information. † Data is just that — facts, figures, numbers, and the like. Data that is used to make a decision is information. If, for example, you reallocate staff because of something you discern from a data table, then that data has become information. When it comes to staffing, make sure that you provide managers with information, not data. If your reports provide managers with data that is simply â€Å"nice to know† or â€Å"interesting,† but doesn’t directly influence decision making, don’t provide them. Information on past practices and results is typically useful only when it is used as a basis for formulating assumptions about the future that can be incorporated into plans. For example, studies of past turnover should be conducted only when turnover assumptions are to be factored into future plans and models. Detailed information on employee movement might identify alternative career paths that can be exploited to fill staffing shortages that the model has identified, but should not be used to estimate the number of moves of various kinds that are expected in the future. Here are two examples: One high-tech company used to regularly publish a detailed listing that addressed staffing activity. The report (often more than 100 computer-generated pages in length) identified existing openings and detailed how long each position had been open, what had been 11 done in the last month to fill openings, and any data on how the position would be filled. The report did not include any  "look forward† and was not viewed by managers as an especially useful tool. Once the organization began to look at staffing from a more strategic perspective, the report was streamlined, so that it provided information on possible sources of needed talent. An automotive company was trying to establish a strategic workforce planning function. It elected to build its foundation on providing information — accurately answering the questions of managers regarding past staffing practices and patterns (e. g. , defining annual turnover rates for specific categories of jobs in response to specific management requests). As the function built credibility, the workforce planning unit was planning to â€Å"add value† by discussing with managers why they were requesting the data, suggesting alternative data, conducting analyses, and interpreting results. By asking these intelligent questions, the function hoped to build a reputation as a valued strategic partner, thus allowing it to participate actively in the business planning process. ?Solve problems, don’t just build capability. Managers want answers to their staffing problems, and solutions to their issues. Yet some HR functions focus their efforts on providing a process, system, or tool that managers can use to develop staffing strategies — not on meeting management’s need for action and answers. The best â€Å"deliverable† of the strategic staffing process isn’t a tool or model — it is a solution to a staffing problem (i. e. , a qualified individual filling an opening). Generally, the development of a â€Å"tool† or â€Å"model,† while necessary in many cases, is by itself insufficient. The tool must be applied effectively to identify and address critical staffing issues. Managers must be trained (perhaps by HR staff) to use the tools effectively and apply results analytically. Make sure your process results in specific, actionable staffing plans (i. e. what will be done to address staffing short-ages and surpluses), not just a better definition of the needs themselves. ?Do the most you can with the information you have. Many organizations think that they lack sufficient data to support the development of a staffing strategy. When trying to define staffing requirements, for example, some organizations seem to think that staffing strategies must be based on â€Å"perfect data† — a full set of accurate information that describes fairly precisely what each business unit will do or is trying to accomplish. It is as if the staffing function is saying to the units, â€Å"As soon as you figure out what we are going to do, we will be able to define staffing requirements. † Given the rate of change in most organizations, this well defined, complete data set will simply 12 never be available. Still, valuable staffing strategies can be developed, even when â€Å"full† data is not available. o Fully utilize the data that does exist. The objective in these cases is not to try and get that data, but instead to â€Å"do the most you can with what you have. † You almost always know more than you think you do. Suppose you are â€Å"sure† of 20 percent of what your organization is going to accomplish. This will allow you to create staffing strategies for that 20 percent. You can either create a strategy for the part you know, or do nothing until you know it all. The choice is clear. Don’t think in terms of the missing 80 percent — think instead that you will be better off addressing at least some of the problem than if you did nothing at all. Here is an example of what one medical center did to create a staffing strategy for patient care staff in the face of great uncertainty. The center could calculate a ratio of the number of nurses required per patient in a given unit. That was not the problem. The problem was that the center had very little idea of how many patients could be expected at any given time. While not random, the number of patients in each unit fluctuated greatly. Consequently, there was no clear number of patients to whom this staffing ratio could be applied. Even in the face of such uncertainty, the center created a very specific staffing strategy. It would use its own full-time staff to support the minimum number of patients (this number would, by definition, be the same every day); supplement this â€Å"base† with its own part-time staff, whenever the number of patients was more than the minimum and less than the median; and use contractors above the median. Staffing in the 21st Century: Modern organizations struggle with staffing challenges stemming from increased knowledge work, labor shortages, competition for applicants, and workforce diversity. Yet, despite such critical needs for effective staffing practice, staffing research continues to be neglected or misunderstood by many organizational decision makers. Solving these challenges requires staffing scholars to expand their focus from individual-level recruitment and selection research to multilevel research demonstrating the business unit/organizational-level impact of staffing. Toward this end, this review provides a selective and critical analysis of staffing best practices covering literature from roughly 2000 to the present. Several research-practice gaps are also identified.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Implementation Of Communication Audit Process †Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Implementation Of Communication Audit Process. Answer: Opening To: Employees from the site location Melbourne and Sydney From: Employees from Head quarter situated at Brisbane Date: 10 April, 2018 Subject: Implementation of communication audit process Objective and Background Data Solution is the small company which deals with the sales of software related to data management. The company is widely spread in Melbourne and Sydney. The head-quarter of the company is in Brisbane. The marketing strategy of the enterprise is effective due to the transparent flow of external communication between the employees and the third parties. The company is facing problem in managing internal flow of communication with efficiency. In this paper, we are looking forward to design a memo for resolving the issues associated with the flow of communication between internal employees. Communication Audit Process This process helps in resolving the issues which exist with the internal flow of communication within enterprise Specific Purpose The specific purpose is to explore Coordination in the working activities of the employees General Purpose The general purpose is to maintain formal and informal communication between the internal employees, managing periodic meetings, coordination among activities, better functional output of the employees Problems Problem 1 Employees are not effective in making the choice of communication tools for the coordination Qualitative analysis: Restriction from the employees to change their traditional methodology of communicating with the advanced communication tools Quantitative analysis: Limitation of time to learn new technology of communication Problem 2 No complete communication flow between the internal members of the enterprise and Limitation in the communication network Qualitative analysis: The head office Employees are not likely to communicate with the employees located at site location Quantitative analysis: Limited knowledge Problem 3 No periodic arrangement of internal meetings Qualitative analysis: Head office employees do not want to visit at site Quantitative analysis: Reports on factual data are not generated Action Plan Solution of problem 1 The action plan for problem 1 is to arrange training and development program to make the employees aware about the new social media tools for sharing information and development of the organization chart for managing the effective flow of report analysis to manage coordination among activities Solution of problem 2 The action plan for problem 2 is to Develop a cloud architecture for the internal employees to manage proper coordination of activities by deploying resources and other relevant information from the cloud, Scheduling of cloud training program, Experts of IT to transform the present working tactics to the cloud environment, and Managing video conferencing among employees who are located at far off places Solution of problem 3 The action plan for solution 3 is to manage monthly schedule of periodic meeting, development of the agenda, preparing minutes of meeting, report presentation, and preparing document of suggestions for improvement Closing It is concluded that the effective implementation of the designed memo helps in resolving the problem associated with communication process among the internal workers of the organisation. The training and development program helps in making the employees aware about the new social media tools for sharing information. The proposed communication process helps in developing good and healthy relationship among head office employees and site location employees Synopsis of the memo Goal: The focus is to propose communication audit process for the internal employees of the enterprise Limitation of the current communication plan: No scheduling of meeting and no proper use of communication tools Proposed solution: Scheduling of the periodic meetings among the stakeholders Target audience: Internal employees of the enterprise Feedback from the employees: Positive feedback helps in increasing the motivation among employees and negative feedback opens the path for improvement Benefits The analysis of the case study helps in analysing the limitation of the traditional communication process which is adopted by the enterprise for the organization functioning. It is recommended that the focus should be given on the target audience to manage the face to face periodic meetings among them. The effective decision can be taken by analysing flow of communication among the team members. The cultural and traditional feelings of the employees should not be hurt. Benefit of the communication audit process is highlighted below: Helps in achieving the goal of the company Helps in completing the project on time Increasing sale of the business Resolving problems of conflict, chaos, and distraction among the employees Respect to the cultural feelings of the employees Effective sharing of resources and equipment Coordination and controlling of the process undertaken The effective decision can be taken by analysing flow of communication among the team members. Good and healthy relationship among head office employees and site location employees Widening the area of communication network Accomplishment of the project mission Minimizing the chance of failure Knowledge Improvement Sharing of new ideas and opinion Contact Details Designation: Project Manager Email: Mob no.: